Personal life, according to Rubenstein, "it's the richest, most concrete, comprising as a single variety and a hierarchy of increasingly abstract relationships… personal life acts like life, including the public, but not only him, but also a cognitive attitude to life and aesthetic attitude to life, and the attitude of the other person as a human being, as an assertion of its existence". She, however, ceases to be just ordinary, empirical process, as often considered. The subject of their responsible attitude to life gives it direction and movement; overcoming circumstances, situation, fighting, he defends its highest point, not allowing to dissolve itself in the flow of situations, shallow feelings and incessant desires. The ability to rise, to define itself in relation to its whole course and is a manifestation of the subject's life.
Can or can't a person be the subject of his own life — this is one of the Central problems of personal life.
The responsibility from the point of view of Rubinstein, is the epitome of a true, very deep and fundamental relationship to life.
A particular problem of the realization of human capabilities rises in connection with the irreversibility of life. The irreversibility of life requires a special relationship of man to the time of life, especially real, requires him to timeliness.
Timeliness is the ability of a person to determine the moment of best fit the logic of events and their internal capabilities, and desires for decisive action. It is the ability to determine the moment of readiness to start a business (and not only in terms of mood, desire, etc., but in the sense of sober assessment of their "chances" of skills, subject to possible difficulties, etc.). Timeliness is a quality and individual characteristics of a person's relationship to life in time.
Everyone "solves" the question of the relationship between initiative and responsibility, ambitions and achievements, desires and responsibilities differently.
We often begin to tackle such "vital" tasks that actually are not only not needed, but do not even a vital, and often this is discovered too late. Vitally important if our desire or act, do we know how to separate the random for others and for themselves from a vital the answer to these questions is of fundamental importance.
Responsibility (or irresponsibility) is invisibly present everywhere and manifests itself in everything, and if her presence is often unnoticed, the lack of felt at once. Rubenstein understood the responsibility is not as faithful to the formal debt, dogma, not as following once and for all established rules and as the ability along the way to see, identify, raise issues, time to understand and make responsible decisions.
Responsibility and loyalty to himself, the credibility of the moral content of own feelings, self-righteousness. Responsibility is the ability to respond not only for themselves but also for others, for their fate, the nature of his relationship with them.
The subject of his life personality is not only because of the ability to solve their problems, to answer for their actions. Personal life includes a relationship with another person and different characteristics of relations to others. As another condition of my existence and "I" as a condition of being other — that is the reality of human life.
"The meaning of ethics is to not close your eyes on all the difficulties, the hardships, the troubles and woes of life, and to open man's eyes to the richness of its spiritual content to everything that he can mobilize to resist, to internally cope with the problems that have not been eliminated in the struggle for a decent life"
To Rubinstein's way of life is not only a person's movement forward but also moving up to higher, more perfect forms, to the best manifestations of human nature. And if moving forward in life by many understood only as a movement from prosperity to decline, from birth to death, then rubinsteins understanding way of life as the movement upwards, towards the human and ethical, social, psychological — perfection allowed to have differing understanding of the end of life: achievement is not old age, decay and death, and the achievement of personal excellence.
The group of young people have formed a certain idea about their future profession, they made their choice, there is a setting for admission to the Institute. Another group of such installation were absent, as they weakly imagined profession, their abilities, and opportunities. But how strong is this setup as it not only exists in the mind, but also determines the nature of vital action, as opposed to external adverse events, it was possible to identify only when the young people began to pass examinations in the Institute. Really stubborn, persistent organizers of your life can you call those young people who for several years was admitted to this institution, in spite of previous failures, and finally realized his installation.
All of these reasons the ability to organize life, to solve its contradictions and to build a valuable relationship we call life position, which is a particular life and personal education. Method of self-determination in life generalized on the basis of her values in life and meet basic needs of the individual, can be called a lifestyle. It is a result of the interaction of the individual with her own life, her personal achievement. Being a result, life begins to determine position and all subsequent life orientation of the individual. It becomes its development potential, the totality of its objective and subjective opportunities based on busy person position, an original support strength. Life position personality is the totality of its relations to life.
In the absence of favorable social conditions a person can due to their activity to achieve a promising position in life (to escape from the province of the professional traditions of the family, to go to the best school, to master a profession, to combine study and work, etc.).
The person must initially forming a setting to the difficulties, the willingness to overcome them and not only the installation to be successful and support. Life strategy of the individual assumes in its basis the principle of self-reliance, a that she had enough strength to sudden changes in their lives that can lead to failure.
And if the forward movement in life many was understood only as a movement from prosperity to decline, from birth to death, then rubinsteins understanding way of life as the movement upwards, towards the human and ethical, social, psychological — perfection allowed to have differing understanding of the end of life: achievement is not old age, decay and death, and the achievement of personal excellence.
First, the child is mastering their actions to give them the desired direction, then through action — mastering situations, then on this basis — building relationships, and through their regulation there is an increasing possibility of organizing a life as a holistic process, given its variability and resilience.
The individual's ability to regulate, organize your way of life as a whole, subordinate to its goals, values, is the highest level and the genuine optimum quality of the subject of life. It simultaneously allows a person to become relatively independent and free in relation to external demands, pressure, external "temptations". But this is only an ideal, but in reality different people have found different measure of the integrity of life, a different degree of conformity of actions of the person its values, intentions.
The types of human activity is characteristic ways of connecting personality of external and internal trends of life, turning them into driving forces of his life. You can see how some of these trends coincide (in whole or in part), support each other, others are divided. Some mainly rely on the social and psychological trends, i.e. other people using the social situation; others on internal resources, consider your strengths in life, operate independently; others in an optimal way connect external circumstances and internal trends; fourth constantly resolve contradictions between them. Under all conditions, this typology reveals not just the properties of each character, psychological features of the person. First of all, it allows a comparison of characteristics, method of life movement of the individual, to identify the ability to resolve life's contradictions. The coincidence of external and internal trends in a person's life or their impact, counteracting characterize the way of life and personality.
Life goals and objectives of the identity of one type appear to be entirely focused on how to resolve contradictions in life that she, strictly speaking, creates inconsistency of their actions or, on the contrary, excessive activity and suppressing the initiatives of others. She can't solve them because they do not have the power to change your way of life and understand that she is their cause. The other type of person gets involved in conflicts which, though deployed in a specific group (in the family, in the production team) are an expression of a deeper social contradictions. In this case, the person either takes experience and social maturity, which then contribute to the organization of personal life, upholding its values, or "ground" intractable conflict and then tries to separate his personal life from the public.
Higher personal qualities, such as consciousness, activity, psychological maturity, integrity, manifested and formed in the individuals way of life, in the specific process of change, motion, development. Activity personality manifests itself in the way it transforms circumstances, directs the course of life, forms a life position. The dynamics of human life ceases to be a random alternation of events, she begins to depend on its activity, the ability to organize and give events a desired direction.
The way of life of a subject of periodization not only in terms of age (childhood, youth, maturity, old age), but also personal, which, since his youth, is already no longer the same age. One person is one social step in earlier, and the other at a later age;
Its quality as a subject of life is manifested not in arbitrary actions, actions (do what I want), but in actions that take into account the resistance of circumstances, their mismatch with desirable for the individual direction of their opposition. Therefore, internal intentions, objectives tested in life, and the person must be aware of their strength.
These considerations Georgian school psychologists elaborated in this example. The group of young people have formed a certain idea about their future profession, they made their choice, there is a setting for admission to the Institute. Another group of such installation were absent, as they weakly imagined profession, their abilities, and opportunities. But how strong is this setup as it not only exists in the mind, but also determines the nature of vital action, as opposed to external adverse events, it was possible to identify only when the young people began to pass examinations in the Institute. Really stubborn, persistent organizers of your life can you call those young people who for several years was admitted to this institution, in spite of previous failures, and finally realized his installation.
Psychologists have identified many personal characteristics that seem to confirm the presence of a human activity: it is a call to action, aspirations, abilities, intentions, focus, interests.
The real criterion of active personality (motives, desires, intentions) is its ability (or inability) to meet these aspirations into actions, actions, way of life.
The degree of convergence or divergence of life practices and values of the self, abilities, aspirations of a person can serve as an indicator of wholeness or fragmentation, contradictory personality structures, prospects or regressivity of their development.
In the absence of favorable social conditions a person can due to their activity to achieve a promising position in life (to escape from the province of the professional traditions of the family, to go to the best school, to master a profession, to combine study and work, etc.).
Position in life is not only a vital relationship, but the way they are implemented that meet (or not meet) the needs, values personality. A person can have an active life's ambitions, high moral values, but a way of organizing life (and sometimes inability, sometimes fear, sometimes passivity in implementation) may contradict this initial "good intentions", his position in life is not conforming to the aspirations, needs. Then he or begins to justify themselves in their own eyes, or trying to change such a position.
Life line — is a certain consistency (or inconsistency) of the individual in the conduct of, the implementation of their position in life, his loyalty, his principles and the relationship to changing circumstances. As well as hierarchical education, i.e. each higher made by the person living level opens longer term, more opportunities (fan of possibilities), life becomes more structured.
"My life has always kept improving, in spite of life's losses, accompanied her" — wrote in his diaries of S. L. Rubinstein
The main characteristic of progressive life line is continuous feedback to influence the results of the preceding stage (decisions, actions, etc.) for the next. This reverse influence of the achievements of life on the individual, multiplication of the achievements of life on her own growing possibility we call secondary conditions for its development.
Preoccupied with identity position "sit back" leads to irreparable changes in her life: she is disappointed in her accumulated anger to the people, vengeance, which manifested in her later life relationships (these are secondary effects of the life position of the individual, which lead to its degradation).
To remain active when you change position in life allows you to truly separate personal activity from those social and psychological supports (fame, status, position, money, etc.) that supported a person before. Another model, in a sense opposite to the first, is a model of the emergence of internal contradictions and crisis as a result of the lack of any desirable for the individual life change, life achievements.
The inflexibility of life position manifests itself in the desire to preserve their views of life, the principles, habits, social circle, etc. unchanged. It is often associated with old age and is reflected in the reluctance of change (travel, meetings, etc.). However, this condition quite often appears in young, and in adulthood as an unwillingness something to change in life something "to move from their habitual places", to be active, to meet the difficulties.
The person must initially forming a setting to the difficulties, the willingness to overcome them and not only the installation to be successful and support. Life strategy of the individual assumes in its basis the principle of self-reliance, a that she had enough strength to sudden changes in their lives that can lead to failure. In psychology has developed the notion of tolerance as the resilience of the individual to difficulties. Resistance to difficulties, contradictions can turn into a kind of personal need.
The need for difficulties, the risk is detected on the part of adolescents in the choice of their profession: they want to be where there are difficulties, the risk. This need is often suppressed by adults who parked their children somewhere safe, comfortable, where they do not need a lot of effort and exposure. You can pay attention to such a seemingly minor detail, as a teenage game. A few decades ago for such games was characteristic test of bravery, the development of will, sense of community, ability to overcome obstacles. Unfortunately, with the growth aspirations of the older generation to the care of teenage games with similar content disappeared.
Deviation from the principles in favor of situational motives of communication, the benefits of a temporary Alliance leads to the disintegration of anastomising sphere of personality.
A person's ability to resolve contradictions and is a measure of its human maturity, of courage, fortitude and integrity.
The strategy of life consists in the ways of change, of transformation conditions and situations of life in accordance with the values of the individual, in upholding the main price concessions in private, in overcoming his fear of loss and finding yourself.
The art of living consists not only in having to take into account their individuality, but also relate to your life goals, plans and wishes with their features to uncover in the course of life a new quality, to develop new skills. But first of all, it eliminates imitation, comparison. Of course, especially in adolescence there is a desire for ideals, which can be wonderful people. But the desire to imitate, which plays a positive role of reference to ideals, should not lead to a life of dependancy. It should contribute to a clearer choice of what exactly to the person, and not the other, i.e., adequate life expression.
It would seem that emotions, feelings are something that is inherent to man by nature, and however it turns out that the capacity for aesthetic feeling, empathy, perception — is a rare treasure of life, the achievement of the individual.
The lack of spirituality has its real social roots. Its sources need to find where there are points of contact between the mundane and the sublime in life. Human life may impoverish his own (when he "refuses" from the content, is fond of form, etc.). Sometimes their lives (financial insecurity, lack of parental education) do not give him opportunities to rise to those "cultural heights", which brings up another. However, in the history of Russian culture, science, there are many examples where, despite all the "hardships of obydenny", people still rose to the heights of perfection. Therefore, we can say that the main point of contact between mundane and spiritual life is the personality and their chosen way of life assertion. Lack of spirituality coexists with the commonplace, and is the flip side of the petty bourgeoisie, but everyone gets them captured by his.
Change of life, i.e. its novelty, which lies in the change of circumstances, living conditions, her attitude is changing, and the man himself. He becomes more Mature, more deeply understand, more clearly sees his place in it, their life goals. But the change of a person, his personality does not always occur as development. Often the change of man is a kind of "assignment" circumstances. Adapting to evidence of an inability to master her life, a passive strategy. In this case, the predominant line of external events, and life itself becomes a series of monotonous alternating days. Disappear life goals, claim that could give integrity to the action disappears and the will of man. The purpose of life is to keep the achieved position in life. The task of improving their lives, the desire to expand its sphere is lost, and personality changes only in getactivation plan becomes a practical skill that is not related to its genuine development. The meaning of life as the desire most fully realize themselves in life is gradually being lost, remain "current" meanings and objectives. Thus, lost and life strategy, there is only the daily tactics of implementation of current Affairs.
Often stop in development leads to degradation of the personality: the purpose of moving personal household, the household of the conditions of life turns into the purpose, meaning of life reduced to mere enforcement of law. Degradation of the individual acts are different, but most often invisible to herself forms: in the fall of motivation in the growth of negative emotions, indifference. This eliminates intellectual interests, they are superseded by ordinary judgment, platitudes, gossip. Degradation leads to age-related changes comes rapid aging, which is often susceptible people who have retained the meaning of life and the ability to set new goals in life and in old age.
The criterion of personality development is the presence or absence of meaning of life. The meaning of life often presents a philosophical problem in real life not all people can articulate clearly to Express. In philosophical and sociological literature developed the concept of the meaning of life, or life concept, which to some extent characterizes the theoretical way of organizing a person's life. But only in real life personal combined life position, life line and concept (the meaning) of life.
the Meaning of life reflects the vital concept of man, conscious and generalized principle of his life, his purpose in life. In the psychology of meaning (not only life, but any action) is called internally motivated, individual value for the subject of an action, act, event. When a person completes an action, it is conscious of why he does it, and this is the meaning. A broader sense is a value and at the same time the experience of this value in the process of generation, appropriation or implementation.
In contrast to motives, which in psychology is considered as the expression of needs, meaning is not only a desire to chemuto, not only future goals are determined by the motive, but it is an experience that takes place in the process of implementation of this motif (or their combination). So, the motive to act in a certain way can be realized in action, but already doing it, suddenly we begin to understand and feel its futility, is found exactly in the moment of action. The meaning of life is a psychological way of experiencing life in its implementation.
The meaning of life is not only the future not only a goal in life, but also psychological curve permanent implementation. Therefore, achieving specific goals in life, we are not lose its meaning, but rather strengthening it, we see it, experience it. The ability of the subject to experience the value of life, to be satisfied by it and constitutes its meaning. In our view, the meaning of life is and the ability of the subject to experience the value of vital manifestations of his personality, his "I", his personality.
Psychological law: too high a psychological price spent on lifetime achievement, it lowers the motivation, claims, and undermines the meaning of life. When the price is too low, when success comes without any effort on the part of the person, the person also ceases to be satisfied, and this in turn destroys the meaning of her life.
the Meaning of life determines the claims of the individual and the choice of those life tasks that she undertakes to solve it. Therefore, based on the life of the claim to a certain place in life, the society is achievement motivation. The person begins to solve problems, to achieve these life goals. Throughout life the meaning of life changes. The young the meaning of life is forward-looking, the old ones on the past or present. Some in the course of life there is a significant reduction of values and the meaning of life.
The meaning of life, more sublime, or more grounded, defines its semantics: does the man in your life primarily to obtain or give (their powers, skills, labour). It affects the level of human activity — more sublime meaning expands the number of tasks that a person poses a regardless of what circumstances require. Low aspirations lead to reduced activity of man, his initiative. Need a little more to get from life, of course, too, sometimes gives rise to the activity and persistence, but makes people dependent on external circumstances, which are associated with the advantage of such "achievements".
The most important "reinforcement" of the meaning of life are either received "good" or a General sense of satisfaction of a man by how he builds his life. It's not a feeling of pleasure, but the satisfaction associated with responsibility for their lives, with a duty to themselves. The meaning of life as the responsibility for its implementation, for its method is associated with the demand and capacity independently, at their own risk, to build and implement it. Liability occurs when you realize that your life depends on you, you one-on-one with their lives than set and its psychological meaning.
The fundamental difference between activity and activities is that activities based on the needs of the subject, and the activity of the demand for activities. Therefore, the need for activity (work) and related communication occurs in the context of the meanings and values of a lifetime. For activity dependence from the subject of need will be direct (mediated, respectively, at the level of the personality of its motives, will, etc.), and for activity this relationship is mediated by activity. We can say that the activity not only qualitatively inherent in the activity and gives it a certain "coloration", but structurally more complicated. Activity specifies the activity (with its structures, functions), motives, goals, orientation, willingness (or unwillingness) to implement
operation, i.e., is the driving force, the source of awakening to the "dormant potential".
The activity would be preceded by activities in time: before the activity we are still unable to change something, change your mind, to improve, after we are already "forced" to finish the job no matter how personal it is attractive. At the time of the implementation of the activities is a "dead" reference to the subject of need (whether jeans or a PhD). Before the start of activities (in case kakogoto the life of the plan, the plan) we actively choose what is desired, freely planned, a lot of times we figure out ways and means to achieve this. But the activity not only "precedes" activity but also "accompanies" it throughout the implementation process. It is impossible to provide optimum operation, devoid of activity taking place out of inertia, on the rigid plan, the activity "build" options in the course of business.
Hoping your strength, time, opportunities to achieve a particular purpose, with activity, we are mobilizing their abilities (to a single spurt or for a longer time), overcoming inertia, downtime. The activity "personal painted" is more constructive. People in this situation doing everything "in ohotku".
If the process activities are achieved to meet the subject's needs, comes a feeling of "saturation" that satisfied, "saturated" the subject of activity can not be, it is not active. But what drives the activity, if not the subject? Focusing on the activity that deals with the subject activity is determined by the subject. The man, being a subject of his life, able to control its activity. However, the activity reduced (from the subject) only to control, can not lead to constructive ways of working. Through its activity the person is seeking, "pronounces" the conditions for the activity reaches the same level and quality of implementation, the extent of its constructive a way as to meet its aspirations, intentions, criteria. These efforts to overcome difficulties to achieve a high level of quality activities for its improvement bring satisfaction (not just activities).
The satisfaction from the nature of the activity and not only its result, the person through the activity does not fall into complete dependence on the social demands and settings.
Activity occurs as a life education of the individual that is aware (theoretically or by experience) that everything from companies it receives through its activities (work) that she shares with other people. However, semantic (the content of this activity is always individual: "to serve others with their work", "to make their work", "work for yourself"
In some cases, the activity is realized dactinomycini, others structurological (the man without end alters their plans, instead of starting to act). In some cases, the identity more rely on others, others in yourself, your "life support". These "pillars" may be external (team, group, culture, traditions) and internal (values, needs, attitudes, motives and drivers). Ways of modeling personality of life through activity can be very different: conscious or unconscious, coherent or natural, rational or random.
Осуществляемая на протяжении всей жизни активность имеет длительный характер. И «пики» и «спады» активности отнюдь не всегда соответствуют реальному, «биологическому» возрасту человека, его возможностям. Часто в старости человек еще активно трудится, а молодой выглядит стариком изза неспособности (нежелания) найти свое место в жизни. Motivation достижения у некоторых инвалидов от рождения (слепоглухонемых) оказывается подчас намного выше, чем у здоровых людей.
The complexity of life choices (motivations, objectives, methods of activity) lies in their simultaneity, of the need to actuate the entire mechanism at once and not in parts. Therefore, forming the activity, not guided by the motives that dictated by momentary desires ("the desires"), or only by reason, as in the process implementation activity is already too late something to change (just to finish before the end). This explains why inadequate and untimely motivated activity is not satisfying.
A person in a state of psychological readiness able to function not only adequately, but in a timely manner. Implementing such a "tactic" in planning the activity, the person does not stop only on the willingness of all his "psychological Arsenal" (States, direction, motives, attitudes) and produces a holistic program in which readiness is only one of the components.
The most dangerous for the individual form of activity regulation is the intentional reduction due to social and psychological attitudes such as "save energy", "don't stop".
In terms of the lack of communication interferes with the normal development of activity, tageweise the destructions of psychological States of the person.
of the Various distortions in the activity of the person observed in the case of suppression of one by the other. As a rule, this phenomenon is typical for families where one parent exhibits despotism in relation to the rest of the family (usually the children). Usually in the role of "dominant" side is the mother surrounding the baby watchful control, minimize his own actions (activity). Such "love" is not accidentally placed in a row with despotism, because it suppresses the activity of the child.
Is adequate, correct evaluation of themselves (self-evaluation) is not less important to determine the personality of his place in life, choice of life position than the active implementation of this position. Attitude in addition to self-assessment should include the permanent need for self-knowledge. Self-knowledge begins with the knowledge of their abilities, character and possibilities. However, "I", processing in a sustainable way itself, the view about their capabilities should include the ability to internal doubt, a capacity for internal dialogue with yourself. Confident person, confident in the General direction of their policy actions, can doubt the correctness of individual actions. It does not look like a manifestation of insecurity, but as a desire to ensure the appropriateness of the selected course of action.
In the absence of the image of the "I" person imposed on any other way, any social function which he assigns in the absence of their. On the contrary, the inner maturity allows for people to properly see ourselves, not only to create a true social way, but really to carry out different social roles, while remaining himself.
The expression (and activity) has a different maturity, different stages of development. So, in the earlier stages (when the internal "I" is still very far from building), the expression usually appears in the form of "demonstrations" (of the "I", "performances", "attacks). A Mature form of expression becomes the stage where the manifestation of himself turns into a real need for adequate and essential expressions of self. Man begins to develop his style of behavior, looking for your style of speech and, most importantly, seeks to Express itself in life, in actions, in deeds. The need for self-expression is a necessity in the expression of his real, not imaginary "I". While the image of the internal "I" shaped, self-expression is being purely external, ostentatious "expression" itself (when to show and demonstrate nothing). However, if for young people it is normal, then this expression becomes a symptom of "adult infantilism".
The inadequacy of external roles internal is most often the result of nesformirovannost "abraza", inability to evaluate themselves, choose the way of self-expression that would bring satisfaction to man.
Naturally, the source of the activity becomes only a harmonious ratio of selected social role (status) of his inner attitude, his "I", which is based on self-esteem (self-knowledge abilities). Fundamental to such social and psychological harmony is the correlation of a person's capabilities, goals, objectives with the nature of life, with this life stage. The way in which man realizes himself as a person in activities, in communication, in solving real-life task is self-expression. Difficulty of self-expression starting with such simple phenomena as shyness, the awkwardness in communication or, on the contrary, deliberate rudeness, being only the external form, which covers the uncertainty. But these problems and challenges apply only to expression in communication, while they exist, and in activities and life in General. People do not know what to do, what to take, what to do, all the time skimming the surface of life. It is illogical and for others, and for himself. When he is faced with resistance, condemnation of his actions, which is not thought out, not hatched right out, not to Express his true "I", it is internally lost, fails to perceive and understand their environment, fenced off from the world.
Creatively implements a person often met with rejection, misunderstanding or even judgment. The most important thing in this case is to develop ideas about their own actions and way of life and belief in the need for its implementation in all circumstances. Meanwhile, some people tend to assume that they do not understand, others that they are wrong. These insights play a huge role in life of a sense of identity, its peculiar shells of the life forms. These interpretations not only tragic or optimistic: they Express the internal disagreement of the person or the protest, a healthy ambition to prove his innocence, perseverance. In other cases, people emotionally agree with the estimates of their actions, their way of life, but thereby yield internally, abandoning his individuality, his right to peculiarity of life. Therefore, the gap in the chain leads to developmental delay, stagnation, "inferiority complex".
Warning the weigh-in turns into a barren thoughts…" Demonstrative type of personality is manifested in the fact that people "paint themselves not as they really are, and what would appear to be" 9. They use every opportunity to present their best side. "Since these people clearly expressed a tendency to avoid difficulties, they often change not only jobs, but the profession… the more are the breakdowns, sudden refusals to work, which is supposedly too heavy
"The constant insecurity, constant follow up can reach a point at which all work is moving forward at a snail's pace. Warning the weigh-in turns into a barren thoughts…" Demonstrative type of personality is manifested in the fact that people "paint themselves not as they really are, and what would appear to be" 9. They use every opportunity to present their best side. "Since these people clearly expressed a tendency to avoid difficulties, they often change not only jobs, but the profession… the more are the breakdowns, sudden refusals to work, which is supposedly too heavy…" 10
If the person can't activate their internal capabilities correlative with their individual abilities, does not find adequate external task method activity, then develops a sore ego. The latter manifests itself in two extremes: in understating the role of "I", self-doubt, or, conversely, overstating the role of "I" claim to a high rating and recognition of its uniqueness. However, in both cases, a sore ego requires constant confirmation of its social importance. But, no matter how often nor given a public rating, it is still not conducive to a realistic self-assessment. Another paradox: even if self-inflated, people with a sick ego is always dependent on the assessment of others.
Thus, self-esteem as an indicator, a criterion of interaction with the world plays an important role in the development of connectorruntime sphere of personality, which is a sense of satisfaction, of fullness of life. Therefore, the definition of various types of expression should be taken into account feelings as a constant companion, as one of the most effective sources increase (decrease) motivation, acquisition (loss) for the meaning of life. Summing up, we note that the main condition expression is the establishment of the adequacy, defined in most cases, the personality, between the inner world (his needs, attitudes, values) and external way of expressing the inner world. This can manifest itself in the choice of social roles, and in any socially useful activities, in other occupations.
An interesting study of the Czechoslovak psychologist O. Meksika, revealing the ways of human behavior in critical situations (because they are "strength" a way of expressing yourself in life) 11. A different risk situations that arise in pilots, mountain climbers, where one type of personality can not withstand the load, "breaks" at the physiological level (falls asleep during the flight, loses coordination, it ceases to see, to hear, to react), another type of "breaks" on the mental level (losing will power, the ability to think, make decisions, etc.), the third — social and psychological level (saves physiological and mental engagement, but sacrifices the life of his comrade for their own salvation, jumping out of a burning plane, leaving the companion, cutting the rope in a bundle of two climbers). Human behavior in such critical situations is an indicator of a genuine (or perceived) morality of man, his real test, life test (what it really is, and not for show).
Therefore, even such a type, which makes a transition from dream to reality in ordinary life, are often able to show courage, speed, intelligence in critical cases, while the "adventurous type" may show a complete helplessness in the face of responsibility.
The initiative and responsibility as forms of activity and strategy of the identity
The initiative and responsibility is first and foremost a form of activity, quality which develop the individual to a greater or lesser extent depending on how society granted him freedom and how it takes public necessity. This form of personal activity, developing a social life and real life way. The initiative is a forward external requirements or counter to them free activity of the subject, which is realized in the intellectual or practical spheres. It is expressed in certain endeavors, the proposals with which a person speaks. (This is reflected in its traditional definition as the creativity of the individual.) The initiative is an expression of intentions and desires, motives of the subject. Responsibility is voluntary, i.e. it is internally taken, the implementation of necessary rules and requirements.
The study of the initiatives of the pupils showed such a controversial fact. At this age, which theoretically is the age of intensive formation and a vivid manifestation of the initiatives, the initiatives were absent. The study showed that the presence or absence of initiatives does not depend on age. The initiative has its individual shape and peculiarities of manifestation, which reveal the reasons for its maliciously, respiteservices, virgenesasiendo. In the first group of young men initiative was sustainable quality (in this sample a minority), the second one appears only in certain situations, a third (they were the majority) can say that the initiative is non-existent.
Revealed three reasons for the lack of initiative. One personality type initiatives, as it turned out, was not formed at the early stages of development of personality and its way of life. We did not specify whether these rooted reasons for the lack of communication with the mother in a dependent child in the family. The second reason: the person was suppressing the initiative at the stage of its occurrence, knowing that it will not be accepted and approved by others. Teachers familiar with the principle of "keep your head down". In this way, the group blocks the initiative of individual active members.
The third group of reasons is related to the fact that the person is blocking their initiatives. If in one case the person suppresses the initiative because organizationarticle will not be able to implement it in another suppresses it, knowing that the social and psychological environment would not support it, then the third initiative is suppressed as a result of internal personal conflicts. As we shall see, one of them was a contradiction of initiative and responsibility; willingness to take the initiative overwhelming sense of responsibility for its implementation.
The responsibility — has a subject because it actively realized the need. In the conventional definitions of responsibility (piaget, Kolberg, Khelkama, Haider, etc.) the emphasis on the cognitive aspects of responsibility (foreseeing the consequences of their actions, but because of their timely regulation, correction), or moral (Autonomous regulation, the subject of his behaviour on the basis of their own moral choice). We define responsibility more broadly, as an independent, voluntary implementation of necessary boundaries and form determined by the subject. It acts as a perfect mental modeling entity responsible of the situation, its limits and complexity, and then implementation.
The subject of the liability itself imposes criteria, which restricts the field of its activity, he maintains control. The person is willing to self-achievement of the result, which it guaranteed under all conditions. Responsibility — ensuring the identity and mode of action (communication), and the result on their own when you set it to the level of complexity of activities and time to achieve results in any surprises, difficulties, etc., the Responsibility turns the external debt in domestic demand, so if the external debt, or duty, require external control of its execution, its conversion into a domestic obligation is accompanied by a transition to self-control. A responsible man knows what he's doing, and foresee the consequences of their actions. It does not need control, he can be counted on.
Executive employees will do as much as he will charge as prescribed by the instruction rule. He may miss a very important link, referring to the fact that it is not mentioned in the instructions. A responsible person takes on the task as a whole and not its separate links. Petty control inherent in bureaucratic structures, destroys personal responsibility, and personal independence.
The person takes responsibility not because of fear of the consequences, because of the desire and preparedness to prevent, to warn of the consequences. Thus, independence from external control, awareness of the integrity of the tasks performed are the factors responsibility. Aware of its responsibility, the man does not limit itself to the wall set of conditions and requirements and feels the need to find the best conditions for optimal compliance. Responsibility implies confidence in their abilities, they are commensurate with the problem being solved (only an irresponsible person takes on the crushing case).
Responsibility became stable quality of the person, allows it to cope easily with the demands placed upon it reality, agree on these requirements and their own desires, freeing themselves from external, coercive control, inspections. It occurs where society trusts the individual. Where there is no trust, responsible can only be described certain forms of human behavior, individual actions, individual actions. In this case, the responsibility is not a quality of the person.
If the person responsible for the business as a whole, for their choices, for their actions, he can determine the sequence of their actions, means and ways to achieve the goal, to separate the important from the unimportant. In other words, taking responsibility, people guarantee themselves a degree of independence, autonomy, freedom. Therefore, the responsibility gives you the opportunity to build different strategies, try different ways to achieve the goal, search for the best.
In the process of life a person chooses what to take on the responsibility. Responsibility involves the development of a strategy of action, of behavior.
The strategy of other people's lives even in hard social conditions (e.g., controllability) provided them with greater independence, precisely because they voluntarily assumed responsibility and saved the interest, the motivation of independent coping.
At first glance, the initiative acts as a free form activity, and in this sense it is the opposite of responsibility as the alleged forced form. We believe that responsibility is the voluntary acceptance necessary, but because on its basis can arise initiative. To prove this hypothesis, we investigated the conditions of transition of responsibility in the initiative in two cases: when the person assumed the liability, or an internal need or external necessity. Another hypothesis was in the opposite assumption: the need to take responsibility arises precisely when the subject begins to implement in practice their own initiatives. If we prove that the initiative can arise in a situation of responsibility (as an indication of voluntary adoption), it would be obvious that in this case the responsibility is assigned to the person, i.e., was his need to address the need.
An important indicator of genuine responsibility is something that a person relies on their hand, acting in accordance with the requirements of itself, i.e. independent from external control. To identify the extent and nature of the responsibility the experiment was built so that the subjects had the opportunity or act on their own, or to enlist the help of others.
Revealed three groups of students, one of which offered (at the stage of initiatives, plans) as much as could be implemented, the second group did not think about implementation at all. The third group included persons who were not originally anticipated (in the future) Directors. But when they were asked to put their plot, they had to simplify it. It turned out that their strategy is the opposite strategy of students of the first group, who, seeing that setting in General, began to extend and develop the original story. So, I found two strategies initiatives: simplification of the design at the stage of its responsible implementation and its complexity, specification, extension.
The criterion of complexity or simplification of the plot allowed us to understand some hidden mechanisms for communication of initiative and responsibility: the simplification of the plot testified to the inconsistency of initiative and responsibility. The initiative expands the field of activity, activity, but occurring after it responsibility requires clear criteria for self-regulation, and, if they are not pre-allocated, the person is forced to narrow the "space" activity, simplify the task.
Further experiments have shown that if students do not take responsibility as a whole, then they turn to the social and psychological supports (imitation, comparison, assessment, and instruction). In other words, the responsibility builds internal or external support, seeking control criteria — or their own, or external (social and psychological).
The change initiative in a responsible position makes it possible to identify the nature of the communication initiative and responsibility. Harmonious and productive combination of initiative and responsibility allows the individual to fully preserve their autonomy and high level of activity. Contradictory forms of communication, initiative and responsibility to reduce the level of activity of the individual and deprive it of independence. Between the lack of internal communication leads to active use of external models, rules, etc
The experiments showed that the acceptance of responsibility leads to the enhancement of the role installation usbecause, i.e. the anticipation of the activity. It is essential that responsibility took on even those who had a setup to failure, i.e., responsibility is a much deeper concept than claims of success. It occurs not only in achievement motivation, but when motivation defeat. This confirms our hypothesis that the responsibility is the presentation of demands to him: they increase if there is the possibility of failure.
Identified two criteria of liability — extension of the field of activity and confidence. If the initiative is in harmony with the responsibility, the person can confront their own confidence dobronauteanu others. Inharmonious relationship initiative and responsibility leads to insecurity, which manifests itself in the inability to oppose their own success criteria estimations of others.
Удовлетворенностьнеудовлетворенность not uniquely associated with esperancia: one persons success does not lead to satisfaction, contrary to the other failure was not unsatisfied. In General, удовлетворенностьнеудовлетворенность depends on the installation usbecause, and confidence, contributing to the expansion initiatives.
The installation to failure boosts the function of self-control, but blocks the initiative. These persons do not oppose criticism of others. When installed on a failure of self-control gives the ability to breed failure and frustration and failure, some were satisfied with what they did correctly, and failure was attributed to the influence of external circumstances.
The other students in the installation to be successful and harmonious combination of initiative and responsibility did not lose the ability to deal with others, had their own criteria uspeshnaya.
For example, is usually considered to be the responsible one who foresees the consequences of their actions. We found the formality, "psychological immorality" of such liability, in which a person seeks to avoid the predicted failure, but his initiative becomes a way of avoiding responsibility in the sphere of imagination, is optional.
The true liability is found primarily in the nature of the claim, the insistence to itself, to install on overcoming challenges. Obstacle responsibility is the success in the eyes of others, the desire for publicity. The authentic responsibility connected with self-confidence and own criteria of self-regulation. There is a lack of responsibility manifested in uncertainty and the appeal to external criteria. Uncertainty, in turn, was manifested in the failure to defend their criteria for when the activities were sharply criticized, in the rejection of their criteria when clearly excessive valuations.
If the person seeks to realize his initiative, not taking responsibility, the external demands are perceived as involuntary, unexpected. This leads to the emotional discomfort of the individual, to frustration and eventually to a loss initiatives. If the activity is performed only through responsibility, limited the achievement of results, avoiding of failure, there is no completeness of self-expression, but because the fullness of satisfaction. This reveals the limitations of notions of responsibility as duty. The obligation excludes the possibility of different implementation strategies of the case, the solution of the problem, the inner freedom of the subject, his ability to maneuver, work.
At first glance, based on the definition of responsibility as assigning individual external need, a man in his actions must be guided by external social and psychological criteria, look for support. In fact, the main responsibility is the feeling of confidence in their abilities, the existence of clear criteria for their own activities and the ability to defend them, to succeed. Responsibility, as the study showed, maybe, or stable quality of the individual, or the responsible implementation of specific activities, i.e. a separate act. Therefore, the responsible way the activity can be available to those who have the responsibility not became more stable quality. This means that the responsibility as the quality of the individual need to form through the activities.
The problem of psychological time —a Feature of it that time and objectively, and individually. It is a measure of a person's life (her events, development), but sometimes can not be perceived "objectively", apart from the personal meanings and values.
The person was considered as a subject of life and its organizer. The optimal regulation, time management involve adequate definition (assessment) of the identity of their capabilities, identifying their compliance or non-external conditions of activity. Consequently, the belonging time the subject involves regulation, planning, the usage time of the personality.
Social time, presenting their demands to the man, clearly indicates, in what period it needs to meet in order to keep up socially, "in time". It can act as a "driving force" of development of a subject in time (from the point of view of improving ways of time management) and his brake. The desire and the need to conform to social time, to keep up, "to keep up with the times" determine the strategy of organizing the time when, in order to keep up, needs to be "a little ahead". The strategy of "advancing" the real (chronological) time, planning their actions (events) "in advance" is a strategy of active transformation, "reservation" or, conversely, "use" your time available, turning it into the condition its development, the implementation of their tasks.
The strategy of "active ignoring" time standards can result in bad lag, to the professional and personal incompetence, disorientation in what is happening.
We can say that timeliness is a way to resolve the contradiction between social and personal time, the way to align the external and internal conditions of life. Time management is the optimal correlation of different stages, periods of life, the setting of the optimal personality of a sequence of life events that should be carried out by the person in time (i.e., timely).
Timely action as a daily practice, a habit, become a way of life, defines its strategy in time, which is a strategy for "timing" of chronological time.
Timeliness is evident in the adequate external temporary regulations the temporary use of their psychic abilities and mechanisms in the creation of a special temporary focus in which people binds broken, disconnected in time objects gives them a certain rhythm and speed.
Different is the motivating force of timeliness: the number of people pronounced life-haste, without regard to the real, objective circumstances of their lives, as if time is constantly pushing them as if they are constantly scared to miss the point. However, no matter how varied the forms of manifestation (or unmanifested) timeliness is an essential quality of the individual, the condition for the realization of its individual and social possibilities.
Sometimes, even the unconscious man sets himself deadlines, evaluating their failure as life failure.
The individual the ability to control time can be seen as the ability to plan, to determine the sequence of operations in time. The ability to concentrate the maximum stress, effort in the moment, to maintain mental reserves before the end of the implementation of activities to establish a psychologically and objectively appropriate rhythm is formed and educate the personality as the ability to control time. Personality, able to work in conditions of temporary stress, to remove or reinforce its action, can catch and highlight the temporary "spikes", to use promptly all transient parameters to determine the limits as permissible delay, and valid leads.
When the analysis of the ability to control the time necessary to consider all levels of regulation from mere tension of all physical forces, neuropsychological efforts, including appropriate allocation of memory, attention, thinking, will, to the organization of activities in time sequence, speed. With each level, the regulation of time is a means of solving the problem of regulation time at the next level. For example, mental regulation is a means of solving the problem of regulation. In turn, the regulation of activities is a condition for the transformation of personality in a subject of activity.
One of the key contradictions of individual life is the contradiction between the rigid social determinism of personal life in time and the individual's ability to develop, i.e. increase its capacity, the multiplication of her personal time in the process of life formation and self-determination. The temporary extension of the individual features associated with a lifetime of experience with the development of abilities and skills that increases the speed of the implementation of the activities, finally, with the development of special ability for the personal organization of a life time.
In public life there are areas that are saturated with events, contradictions, socially perceptive, characterized by a high pace of development. Once in such areas, the person gets the opportunity to interact intensely with the environment, acquires a high rhythm of life. Favorable public conditions strengthen, increase opportunities of an individual, multiply its potential.
Activity intensificare life and personal processes, and contributes to a more complete expression and thus increases the value of real life time. The ability of the individual to the organization of life time is a direct control of time mastering them.
The organization of the people's time of your life
The person must determine in what sequence to perform certain things, to solve the problem of life, devote more time of vitality. Formal indicators of time does not reveal its value: people can quickly to do something, to quickly move to the interesting and most important work. In the organization of different people and their lives in the foreground is not the distinction of the biographies, or "destinies", people, and the dependence of the course of life from the personality, its acceleration or deceleration, the intensity or extensity.
Psychologists have found that the life time can be viewed typologically. Personality types, more included in social dynamics are more direct, rigid (short-term) temporary links with social conditions. They receive from social situations kind of additional acceleration. Personality types, involvement in social processes, which do not recognize time value, usually the most static and have a low "acceleration", since I don't know what it's time to fill. These are two extreme types. The identity of the first type are mostly in the sphere of socially necessary time, respectively, their time and outlined, they require a certain productivity, a certain speed. At the same time they enjoy all the social values of the time, they are to a lesser extent, are subjects of their own lives, the distributors of her time. Personality the opposite (second) type, the maximum release free time for the "real" life, the minimum part of social processes. Free time individuals of this type is recognized as a personal value, but not assign them as a value. Free time turns into anti-values, i.e. wasted or becomes impersonal, depleted way of life.
Thus, in the regulation of life time viewed various personal ways. One of them is to maximize the compliance of public time, panoramirovanie to the speed of social life, the social requirements of the individual. The other is to turn the time into a value in itself, release the maximum free time. However, such individuals usually do not realize the time value as don't use it for their development.
In General, the development of personality is the increase of its potential growth and multiplication of personal time. Development in the time expression is a kind of "performance" (not labour, and life itself), the resolution of the identity.
The person is able to increase the lifetime, times a social time at the time their development potential. It holds its line, and holds it through all the time of life retains the basic problem of life, in spite of any changes, provides a meaningful link between past, present and future.
The activity of the individual can be spontaneous and achieve optimality random, imitative way. Or showing the activity, the identity can account for the patterns of public time, public demands, i.e. being actively pursued public requirements, consistently and independently to implement them. On the basis of the activity parameters can distinguish four types of regulation time:
1.Stainability type: personality is dependent on events and circumstances of life. She has no time for time, can arrange the sequence of events to anticipate their occurrence or prevent implementation. This way of organizing the time of life is characterized by contextuality of behavior, lack of personal initiative, i.e. the short-term and passive regulation.
2.Functionaliteiten type: person actively organizes the course of events, direct their progress in a timely manner is included in them, achieving efficiency. However, the initiative only covers certain periods of the course of events, but not their objective or subjective consequences; there is no prolonged (long-term) regulation of the time of life — the life line. This type is a combination of short-term active regulation time (event time).
3.Supercalendering type: personality passive refers to the time, there is no clear organization of a life time.
4.Sosiaalifoorumi type: person prolonged organizes time, linking it with the meaning of life, solving social problems creatively seizes the time.
For the first two types is the way life really acts as an event, but this is due to their temporal organization, which is short-term. For the last two types of way of life acts as a long integral education as a continuous life-line, although their life objectively also consists of a chain of events.
For the function type are meaningful only given the situation and the moment of its activity, and when it's done, time loses its value. New activity and calculation of time of operation, the ratio between external and internal forces, etc. is bound only to the following situation.
Types of the time modes:
- optimal for implementation period, given to man;
- an indefinite period for the implementation of the activities in which he must determine the date of its end;
- the time limit when a person needs to work hard enough to meet him this time;
- excess time when it is given certainly more than is necessary;
- lack of time, i.e., clearly insufficient time.
The "optimal" type in all time regimes were successful, i.e. cope with any temporary needs; his feelings were not related to his activities. Expressed ability to organize time. The presence of this capability indicates that he is successfully working in any temporary modes, is able to solve any temporary problems.
The"deficit" type, all of the terms reduces to a shortage of time, i.e. subjective calls all the time, but was working well. Leading is external givenness of time, and minimum time, which is why his experience of time is also not related to his activities, do not participate in its regulation.
A"quiet" type, on the contrary, is experiencing difficulties in the mode of lack of time or a limited period of time, and in other modes working well. This type of people it is advisable to inform in advance about upcoming activities, and then they in order of self-regulation successfully cope with it, arranging and organizing their time. Experiences of this type are two-fold: when he defines the terms he is going through a time as stressful, which indicates its summability and self-regulation, when the time is given from the outside, it disorganized.
"The Executive" type successfully operates in all modes except the temporary uncertainty, i.e. almost in all modes with externally specified term. In his experience of time is dominated by the emotional attitude that, apparently, is connected with a special sense of order and satisfaction.
"Anxious" personality type successfully operating in the optimal period, works in excess of time, but avoids its deficit, and this is reflected in the nature of time experience.
"Suboptimal" type in any of the modes not working well, which is reflected in the conflict his character experiences time.
This typology was built with the aim of identifying strategies for action in various modes, and it actually reflects the preferences of people, their orientation given them time outside or independent of the timing of their activities. (And it is interesting that one personality type defines himself time so that everything reduces to a deficit, i.e., he reduces his freedom in time to the hard work from the outside.)
It turned out that the first type of interest in set him a time or he defines it himself, which indicates a high level of development of his ability to organize time. The typology revealed temporal modes that are optimal for each type, and the ones he avoids, where its activities are unsuccessful. Such psychological characteristics of the people allows them professionally rather decide to choose the most appropriate mode of operation within the profession. Knowing the features of the organization of time, people will take them into account in order to avoid hard time, or to train and improve their capabilities in time management.
It is obvious that there are types of people self-organizing in time, and the types that you want to lead. Do I need to provide time in excess of to perform particular work if he'll do it at the last minute? It may be that such a person needs to take on "the burning" work?
The experiment showed that some people are aware of the time as the value of life, others perceive only its practical, pragmatic and even situational meaning. People's awareness of the value of time is also different: some people are aware of time as personal value, others as externally given problem (time is set from the outside, it objectively is not enough, etc.). For some types of people the problem is time (lack of) worth as a conscious problem in life, for others it simply does not exist, and questions about attitude to time cause them surprise, seem incomprehensible.
the Life prospects of the individual and the organization time
We propose to distinguish between psychological, personal and life perspectives as three different phenomena.
Psychological perspective is a person's ability to consciously, mentally to foresee the future, predict it, to imagine yourself in the future. This ability, as shown by our study, depends on personality types. So, high school students are in the age where people mostly live for the future, identify various psychological perspectives. Some ideas about the future are related to the professional choice, while others — with the personal claims and with their future achievements (a successful career), the third — with personal aspirations and needs (friendship, love, family). These differences are associated with value orientations, preferred spheres of life.
Personal perspective is not only a person's ability to foresee the future, but also preparedness in the present, the installation for the future (readiness for the challenges of the future, uncertainty etc.). Such a perspective could even be the person with the poor, undifferentiated, unconscious vision of the future (which may be associated with a poor imagination). Personal perspective is primarily a personality trait, an indicator of its maturity, its development potential, formed the ability to organize time.
Life perspective is not always open to anyone who has a psychological term, i.e. ability to foresee the future, and not even the one who possesses a personal perspective, personal features, potential, and maturity. Life perspective includes the totality of the circumstances and conditions of life, which, ceteris paribus, create the individual for optimum life of the promotion.
Often life perspective offers to those who at present have established a system optimal (i.e. has many features) life of the relationship, the support system that possess the growing value. The totality of these relations we call life position, which in a holistic fashion defines the personality. Life milestones achieved by man, contribute to the acceleration of achieving the goals will require in the future, less effort, in a sense, provide a guarantee that future. People, having a personal perspective in the absence of a developed position, can quickly exhaust their personal capabilities, abilities, falling into periods of life, rich in difficulties, contradictions or, on the contrary, poor events, is not conducive to development.
The nature of the relationship (including identification) of identity with the profession determines the potential movement in the future, and satisfaction in the present, in other words, both prospective and retrospective personality.
If the financial interest is in a reasonable combination with professional identity, the increase of the material level acts as a psychologically valuable life perspective of the individual. If she is leading, then, generating indifference to the profession, to the point, it serves as a regression of personal perspective. The prospect to earn more and more buy has low psychological saturation, and therefore leads either to a constant growth of this need and efforts of the individual to its satisfaction, either to psychological regression of individuals, the emergence of a sense of boredom.
In a certain period of life, the demand for labor (the desire to be financially independent from their parents) becomes the basic necessity of life. Another age group work can be a means of meeting the needs of the individual in public recognition, prestige, a way of expression, recognition by society of its own. These qualities of the work make it an essential Foundation of life perspective of the individual adult.
A weak involvement in the profession leads to the concentration of activity in the sphere of everyday life, in the sphere of consumerism.
If the financial interest is in a reasonable combination with professional identity, the increase of the material level acts as a psychologically valuable life perspective of the individual. If she is leading, then, generating indifference to the profession, to the point, it serves as a regression of personal perspective.
The prospect to earn more and more buy has low psychological saturation, and therefore leads either to a constant growth of this need and efforts of the individual to its satisfaction, either to psychological regression of individuals, the emergence of a sense of boredom.
Being psychologically attractive, the future is not always a personal perspective. The difficulties of uncertainty in one part of youth is growing activity aimed at overcoming difficulties, the other, on the contrary, passivity.
- Personality as a subject of activities
In the course of public life are sharing experience, organization of activities and permanent social regulation of the activities of the individual (in the form of rules, conditions, temporal conditions, etc.). Public regulation of activities does not preclude its regulation of individual human self-control. The optimal combination of public and private regulation depends on the extent to which a person becomes a genuine subject of activity. The company determines the activities and their requirements for the activities of the individual, and develops its own personality, i.e. the individual forms of activity and binds it all in operation. The dependence of the individual from social relations is mediated by its position in this relationship and the nature of its activity, a feature of which is in turn defined her life by. Personal activity is manifested in the formation of the human subject when he comes up with his own attitude towards the activities, it creates its own style of implementation.
This person is a combination of objective requirements and own interests, goals, experiences, motivations, abilities, their States of activity. The measure of matching tasks to features of the subject (the difficulty, proportionality, timeliness, etc.) is a criterion of the quality of implementation of activities.
The attitude of people to work differently: for some, labor is a valid personal need, the meaning of life, for others — a means of material well-being, for the third — class, service etc. the Attitude of labor as to public necessity, implies a relation to a society, to real people, with whom working people, the attitude to this team, to the profession, the idea of his possible place in it, i.e. expressed attitude to life in General. Work or becomes a matter of life or interesting occupation, or heavy duty. The value of the activity for personality is associated primarily with the opportunity to Express themselves, to use their abilities, with the possibility of creativity.
The person as the subject of the activity may fit your personal characteristics, abilities to specific task activities. The consistent ability to connect all levels of regulation is the ability of self-regulation. Depending on the method of communication, mental and personal (motives, abilities, etc.) levels of activity, it becomes optimal or suboptimal nature. In the latter case, there are secondary mental and personal education — fatigue, boredom, excessive perenapryazhenie, negative emotional States, stress, etc.
a communication Method of individual mental characteristics or is optimal or suboptimal for the individual character, its activity can be located on the minimum and maximum level. In the implementation of activities, it can multiply, grow, or may be depleted, suppressed. The psychologist Kraepelin was marked by two factors of health: positive and negative exercise — fatigue.
The very activity of the individual in the activity appears in different concrete forms: human performance, disability, disability insurance, and individual abilities and personalities. The level of activity, its duration, the stability depends on both the coherence and the optimal combinations of different components (emotional, motivational), and the method by which the personality as a subject is included in problem solving activities, from the position which it occupies in this activity. So, a person can begin activities on the basis of the high level of their expectations, overestimating their capabilities and underestimating the complexity of the forthcoming work. However, it may be insufficient achievement motivation, persistence (or the ability to take risks), so a relatively simple case it performs worse than the person, really evaluate your options.
As for the implementation of activities may reveal that the attractiveness of a business and the importance of the goal is much lower than that required to overcome the difficulties of effort and man if it doesn't rely on willpower, have limited liability, may discontinue the activity.
Self-regulation is the mechanism, which is provided by centralizing, guiding, and activating the subject's position. It optimizes mental disability, compensation of shortcomings, regulation of individual States in connection with the tasks and events activities. It also provides trust and semantic compliance of actions of the subject of these events, timeliness, proportionality of actions, etc.
The inclusion of the activity requires from the subject of the calculation of the forces for the entire period of activity, especially in unforeseen difficulties, surprises. In General, the ability of the subject to relate their capabilities and individual characteristics with the nature of tasks is one of the most important characteristics of self-regulation. There are activities that require voltage in the early stages, others in the final, others require maximal activity in unforeseen and unspecified time.
The choice of function or the adoption of a decision is a kind of self-determination of the subject, which changes the ratio of the previous and following stages and determines their psychological nature. The critical point of transition from a period of adaptation activities to the stabilization period varies individually. By means of self-personality maintains a stable level of activity regardless of the variability of mental States at a particular stage.
In the organization of activities of the unconscious part of the self-regulation activity: a sequence of perception or of thinking, a way of realization of their abilities, mental and personal pace of action, setting the difficulty (ease) and many more. Each person, becoming a subject in a certain way adapts and reorganizes its features in connection with the activities. The subject is typical and convenient way for itself actualizes, converts, directs the system to those qualities he has as a person.
In the course of particular activities to the entity, there arises the problem of the composition of the principle, its specific goals and objectives and their interdependence, sequence, i.e., the strategy and tactics of activities. Simple examples of possible strategies is to develop goals, advance preparation of the action plan and the prospects for its implementation. However, there are types of people with opposite strategies: first, they perform an action, deed, subject to the direct impulse, and only then begin to analyze them. Strategy of a subject can manifest itself in the desire to avoid difficulties in mounting their challenge, in the orientation on an external support or self-reliance.
Self-regulation is not always objectiveoriented and subektivnom way. These features of personality regulation manifest themselves psychologically, and the personal "cost" to the activity. To maintain a certain level of activity in two ways: overextension of forces, which leads to fatigue, drop in activity, and by emotionalmotivational reinforcements (psychologically easy and convenient method). We should not think that the possibility of infinite improvement of self-regulation that all its levels are made only deliberately. The number of processes and ways of action of the original deliberately and arbitrarily regulated become unconscious. In the psychological system of self-regulation is not only flexible, but also hard links. But from the point of view of the principle of development it is important to note the main thing: the quality of implementation of activities subject is a result of the improvement of the entire system of mental organization, not the simple result of the development of individual mental processes and properties.
Depending on the experience a subject has a greater or lesser ability to predict the occurrence of the event. In turn, this forecast translates his inner state: the feeling of insecurity before the unexpected occurrence of events is replaced by a state of readiness for any eventuality. That is the systemic nature of self-regulation allows us to understand the source of Fund the subject of their forces and reserves, and not only the source of compensation of disadvantages.
Obviously motivated activity, i.e., interest for the subject, generates positive emotions, a feeling of satisfaction. Human activities with the ability, also creates additional motivation to work, motivation of self-expression, achievement. If the task, are vitally important, regulation of the current States (illness, fatigue) does not require the volitional effort required in low-importance activities.
The organization personality of its activity is to, based on the temporal parameters of his psyche, to combine in time their activity. We are talking about timeliness, motivation, optimal use of their abilities, optimal and timely volitional tension.
Subject predicts its activity, sopochina and establishing a sequence of work operations. Programming allows the individual, first, a typical and convenient from the standpoint of its psychological possibilities to associate the task sequence is the nature of the activity required in the beginning, the climax and end of activities. Secondly, it allows you to determine exactly the time and the form of the maximum stress activity, to condense, to reallocate subjective time, which leads to its economy. Weak organization of the activities is that it increases the psychological "price", i.e. activities that do not correspond to individual peculiarities of the personality, her motives and values and exceeds the level of its capabilities. Activities performed under duress, leads to failures, failures of personality, which can result in psychological injuries, costs, are a kind of high psychological "price" for an impossible activity.
Even simple activities if it is not organized by subject, causes a surge of the person, which, added together, goes into fatigue and irritation. Organization of activity helps the entity to adhere to its basic line (direction), even when difficulties arise. French psychologists have studied the programme of action of the nurses on the day, found that she was constantly distracted from the case patients with a variety of requests, so she tired quickly.
One of the most difficult tasks is ensuring the continuity of creative activity. In the process musicalrelease activities, for example, dangerous pause, stop, short crash, leading to loss of quality of performance and professional failure can sometimes lead to the abandonment of their chosen profession. The study of creativity of writers and artists of the Finnish psychologists showed that for constant self-renewal and inspiration they need a quite long creative break, relieving fatigue, giving you the opportunity to gain experience and with new forces to start working.
It is in the works there is a fusion of the artist with his work, only possible with the full involvement of the person in the creative process, in which he constantly finds new meaning. Interest in creative problem-does not allow the person a minute to break away or off from the process.
The ability to mobilize the activity is not only desired, but in the right direction, show initiative, determination and discipline at the same time — qualities that develops joint activities.
Persons with a strong sense of initiative and responsibility of the collective type were highly flexible and self-criticism, and a calm and efficient attitude to criticism of their actions as they carried critical comments not to his personality as a whole and to account for them in the least. Person with initiative and responsibility, egoistic type were indifferent to criticism of their actions and unself. Faces of individualistic type was self-critical, but he took criticism poorly, as a criticism of his personality. Persons with a predominance of initiatives were either intolerant of criticism, or identified criticism of their actions with criticism of his personality.
How human thinking is involved in real life, what distinguishes human life from thinking of human life, living mindlessly?
As far as human life needs it encourage thinking, stimulate reflection, and reflection are embodied in the realities of life. While trying to answer this question we turn to the old philosophical concepts of "contemplation" and "pragmatism". In the life of the individual, his thinking can be purely contemplative, i.e., thinking about something and enjoy indulging in this lesson, the man then interrupts him and turns to the practical Affairs of life, as if he had not committed any theoretical mental work. Pragmatist rationally spends his mental energy on fruitless thoughts, as a viewer, and to solve a local, specific, practically important problems.
Thus, the development of intelligence, its focus, sustainability intellectual interests do not depend on formal structures, and even exercise, and how the man himself learns to appreciate, to develop, to apply this its ability, to turn it into an intellectual activity, i.e., how a person manages his intelligence, his mind.
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