a summary of the book: Clayton Christensen — life Strategy

The way we allocated our own resources — our time, abilities, and power — defines the actual strategy of our lives. From time to time existing strategy quite accurately matches our intentions. But most often what we ultimately come, much different from what we originally were going to do.

The starting point of our trip — discussion of priorities. Actually we are talking about the main criteria of decision-making: what in your career are most important to you? The problem is that our view of the most important things are often not consistent with what really makes us happy. Even worse was the fact that we notice this discrepancy too late.

the Last element is performance. You will be able to implement its strategy only in the case if you invest in this process certain resources. Good intentions are not enough — you will not be able to implement his plan, if you do not spend your time, money and talent in the right way. Throughout life you will constantly be moments that require time and attention. How will you determine those needs that should be addressed available resources?

Many people fall into the same trap: they spend themselves that allows them to quickly get a reward. This path is very dangerous. All of these factors — priorities, balancing plans with opportunities and resources are distributed in their entirety and form your strategy. This process occurs continuously: even when your strategy will become complete on your journey will definitely unforeseen problems and opportunities. And you have to adjust the initial concept, therefore, the development of the strategy will be a continuous process.If you understand this process and learn how to manage it, you'll be able to get the exact goal is to build a life that will bring you true satisfaction

The theory of motivation recognizes that you can pay people, so they wanted the same as you — again and again. However, you cannot put an equality sign between incentives and motivation. The true motivation causes people to do something because they want it. This type of motivation exists in all times — in both good and bad

Herzberg argues that the common assumption that job satisfaction encompasses a whole spectrum of emotions from complete happiness to absolute misery, — is not true. In fact, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two separate and independent categories of assessment. For example, this means that you can love your job and hate it at the same time. This theory distinguishes between two different types of factors: hygiene

factors and motivational factors (motivators).

In one part of the equation are the elements, the absence or lack of which leads to our dissatisfaction with work. They nativeauthentication factors. It is such things as status, wages, job security, working conditions, company policy and practices control over the work. For example, it is very important that your head does not manipulate you for their own purposes or didn't make you accountable for what is not included in the scope of your responsibility. The bad "hygiene" causes frustration. In order not to experience a sense of dissatisfaction with their work, you should be engaged in identifying and addressing poor hygiene factors. You should pay attention to the statement by Herzberg that salary is a hygiene factor, not a motivator. Studies Herzberg allow to draw an important conclusion: continuous improvement of hygiene factors of your job will not mean that you suddenly will love her. In the best case, you will cease to hate her. The opposite of dissatisfaction from work is dissatisfaction with the work, and the absence of dissatisfaction. This is not the same thing.

Какие факторы могут заставить нас полюбить свою работу? Герцберг называет их мотиваторами. В число таких факторов входят интерес, признание заслуг, ответственность и возможность карьерного роста. Ощущение, что вы вносите значимый вклад в работу, связано с условиями, внутренне присущими самой работе, — ее характером и сутью. Motivation гораздо меньше связана с внешним принуждением или стимулированием и в гораздо большей степени — с тем, что происходит внутри вас и вашей работы. Согласно теории Герцберга, если в вашей работе присутствуют мотиваторы, то вы ее полюбите — даже если она не будет приносить вам кучу денег. У вас будет мотивация ею заниматься.

However, after the construction of the house was finished, I very rarely see children playing in it. The truth was that actually motivated them not the possession of a gaming house, its construction, and the satisfaction they received from a sense of their own contribution to this process. I thought for them was an important result, and it turned out that this was the way to achieve it. It is difficult to overestimate the power of these motivators — sense of achievement and the acquisition of new knowledge, the execution key role in the team involved in something meaningful.

to find the true happiness, you must continue to seek opportunities that will allow you to do what you think is important to learn something new and gain a higher degree of responsibility.

The people who genuinely love what they do and consider their work meaningful, have a clear advantage over all the others. They invest in it all the power, which makes them experts in their field. This, in turn, may mean that they make good money; careers in which there are motivating factors, often accompanied by financial rewards.

One of the mistakes that can easily make many of us is that we are struggling to gain external tangible attributes of professional success, mistakenly believing that this will make us happy.

a higher salary. More prestigious post.

A more convenient office. Ultimately that's what our friends and relatives as signs of professional success. But once you start to focus on the material aspects of your work, you risk to be in place of some of my classmates, chasing a Ghost. You begin to feel that the next salary increase will definitely make you happy. This is the path that leads to nowhere.

The theory of motivation suggests that you need to find answers to questions different from those most of us are accustomed to ask yourself. Is it important for me this work? Will I have this post for a chance for further development? I know something new? Will I have the opportunity to achieve recognition and to achieve something? Do I have a responsibility? These things will motivate you. When you understand this, those aspects of your work that is measurable,

gradually lose their value. Gaining understanding of what motivates us, is a very important step on the path to self-realization. But this is only half the battle. In fact, you should find a job that motivates you and satisfies the requirements of the hygiene factors. But if it was easy, unless each of us already wouldn't it? Unfortunately, all is not so simple. You have to balance your desires with unforeseen threats and opportunities. The management of this part of the process of strategy implementation often determines the success and failure for businesses and personal careers.

In other words, strategy development is not a separate premeditated event — a decision taken, say, at a meeting of top managers based on the available figures and analyses. This is a continuous, diverse and difficult controlled process. Manage very difficult — the intentional strategy and new opportunities are constantly fighting for resources.

Balance between spontaneous and deliberate

I'm always amazed at how many of my students and other young people that I work with, I think that needs to plan his career step by step for the next five years. Often a successful and motivated people pressed at the same time on themselves. At school they convince themselves that to succeed needs to have an accurate idea of exactly how they want to dispose of his life. This belief implies that they have to take risks and stray from your vision only if everything goes absolutely not as planned. In reality, however, such a clearly defined plan makes sense only in certain circumstances. Whether we realize it or not, in life and work we are constantly looking your way, making the choice between our deliberate strategies and unexpected opportunities as they arise. Each approach is fighting for our hearts and minds, forcing us to choose better option as a strategy. None of them is good or bad by definition, but your choice depends on what stage the way you are. If you understand that strategy is made up of these two elements, and that the best choice is determined by the circumstances, will be able to choose the best option from opportunities that will arise in your careers.

But if you still haven't reached clarity with your career, then this option is not for you, and you should, as any new company, looking for a way to develop. Experiment! Learning something from my experiences, adjust your plans. Then quickly review your actions. Act so as long as your strategy will not gain clarity. Working hard on his career, you will begin to discover those areas of work that you like and you'll Shine; I hope you will find a field of activity that gives you the maximum number of motivators and the presence of hygienic factors. However, we are not talking about having to sit in an ivory tower and ponder the problem until your head suddenly appears right answer. Strategy almost always emerges from a combination of projected and unforeseen possibilities. It is important to go out into the world and look up until you see where you are starting to bear the fruits of your talents. When you figure out what works in your case, you can go from spontaneous to intentional strategy.

There is a tool that can help you test more efficiently — your deliberate strategy or a new spontaneous. To do this you must clearly articulate what assumptions should be confirmed that the specific strategy has reached its goal. The scientists who described this process, Ian Macmillan and Rita McGrath called him ≪planning on the principle of disclosure is, but it may be easier to formulate it in the form of a question: ≪What factors must be confirmed to make this work?≫

With the emergence of new promising ideas, of course, must be drawn up financial projections. However, instead of pretending that they are accurate, it should be recognized that at this stage they are very approximate. Because we all know that ≪the green light≫ for any project can only be obtained under the condition that the user will like your data, you are often in a veiled form encourage employees to juggling numbers so that they looked absolutely convincing. Instead, you should ask project team members to make a list of all assumptions that were made when preparing the initial forecasts. Then ask them: ≪What these assumptions should be correct, so we can safely expect that these numbers will become a reality?≫ Assumptions included in this list should be ordered according to parameters such as importance and uncertainty.

At the top of the list should be given the most important and least certain assumptions, and in its lower part those for which the characteristic minimum value and the maximum certainty. Only after you understand the relative value of all the underlying assumptions, you need to give good feedback on the work of their employees — but not like it used to do most of the companies. You should search for methods allowing rapid and least costly to check the validity of the most important assumptions. If the company has a clear idea about whether to confirm initial assumptions, it is able to take a more correct decision whether to invest in this project or not.

Before you agree to any work, make a detailed list of what have other people done for you, so that you can successfully implement their plans and do what you hope to do. Ask yourself the question: ≪What assumptions must be justified, so I can achieve success in this job?≫ List them. Depends on whether you keep them? It is equally important to ask yourself, what assumptions should be confirmed that you found happiness due to you're considering the option. What motivators focused your position — external or internal? Why do you think that this is the work that will make you happy? What you have evidence for this? Each time, pondering the changes in his career, do not stop to analyze the most important assumptions that should be confirmed, and think about how you can quickly and cheaply to verify their authenticity. Remember: you must have a realistic idea of the journey that lies ahead.

The study of the formation of companies, their strategies allows you to understand that their success is by no means the difficulties which arise at the first stage. On the contrary, it depends on whether you can keep experimenting until until you find the approach that works. Only a few successful companies start their activities immediately using a strategy that ultimately leads to success.

No matter how difficult it may seem, you need to be honest with yourself throughout the process of strategy formation. To change something in your life is very difficult, and you may find that it is much easier to continue to do what you already do. These thoughts are dangerous. This is just a superficial solution to the problem, and you run the risk of years later to Wake up one morning, look in the mirror and ask yourself: "What am I doing with my life?"

You may say that you have strategiat of life, understanding of self-motivation and the ability to balance expectations with unforeseen possibilities. However, your statements mean absolutely nothing if you do not agree with them on how to really use your time, money and effort. In other words, the most important thing is how you allocate resources they have. Real strategy — in companies and in our lives — is the result of making hundreds of daily decisions about what to spend their resources. How to ensure that you are moving in the right direction? Be careful that your resources are spent. If they do not support your chosen strategy, neither of which its implementation is out of the question.

However, the situation becomes even more confusing when such problems occur in the mind of one and the same person: when the right decision for the long term is not beneficial from the point of view of the near future;

However, the individual is not the only cause of this problem. In fact, if you study the root causes of the collapse of the business, again and again will find a predisposition to actions that provide immediate rewards, instead of those that lead to long-term success. The system of decision-making of many companies is focused on to to steer investments to initiatives that offer the most znachimaya immediate return on investment, so companies often give them preference, nedodaeva money to those initiatives that are critical to their long-term success.

In our lives and professional activities of the principle of resource allocation works almost identically. Gloria Steinem, as well as Andy grove, expressed strategy, operating in her world, in the following words: ≪We can call our values by looking at the roots of their own checkbook≫. The dilemma with what diagnostic apparatus to get out of the portfolio at the time of sale, is very similar to the dilemma we all face at the end of the day: whether to hold an extra half hour at work to do something else, or go home and play with the kids?

We can categorize the investment in the strategy that becomes our life, as follows: we have resources — which include personal time, energy, talent, and status, and we use them in an attempt to deploy multiple ≪enterprises≫ in his personal life. These ≪enterprises≫ include fulfilling relationship with our second half or loved ones, raising wonderful children; career success; contribution to the life of our Church or community; etc. However, our resources are unfortunately limited, and those ≪enterprises≫ begin to compete with each other. This is the same problem that have to deal with any Corporation. The principle according to which you should devote resources to each of these tasks? If you're not careful in managing the process of allocation of your personal resources, the decision will be made without you in accordance with ≪default judgment criteria, which, in fact, ≪embedded≫ in your mind and soul. As in the case with the different companies, the decision on the distribution of your resources in the process of a single meeting or at the time when you browse the schedule of your Affairs for the upcoming week. It is a continuous process and you need to have in my head a sort of filter that will help you in choosing priorities. However, this process is rather messy. Every day various people are asked to give them your time and effort, and even if you are focused on what is important to you, it can be difficult to understand which option is correct. If you have a drop too much force or free thirty minutes, there are many people that push you to use them on one and not on another. When so many people and projects expect for your time and attention, you may feel that you are in control of your destiny. Sometimes it's for the best: you have the possibility, the occurrence of which you never anticipated. But in other cases these opportunities can take you far away from the right course, as happened with some of my classmates. Many people aspiring to high achievements, danger unconsciously to focus its resources on those activities that guarantee them an immediate measurable results. Most often this is due to their career, as it is this area of their life provides the most obvious evidence that they are moving forward. They ship products, finish the project, help the patient complete the deal, let the student know, win the case in court, publish a newspaper, get money, achieve promotion. These people are planning to build along with a career bringing the joy of personal life, making the choice in favor of a dignified life for his family, but at the same time, unwittingly, overlook your second half and children. Investing time and energy in these relationships does not provide the same immediate feeling of its own success, as rapid promotion. You can neglect your relationship with your husband or wife, not noticing in everyday life, as something collapses. Every night, returning home, you see a spouse who is still waiting for you. In fact, this same model can be found, looking at the personal lives of many ambitious people. Although they may believe that family is very important for them, actually put less and less resources in those things which, according to them, have the most to them. Few people aspire to something similar. Decisions leading to this situation often seems to such people tactical — just small decisions that, in their opinion, can't do anything differently. However, if they continue to allocate resources in this way, it — often without realizing it — implement a strategy that is quite different from what they intended to do.

The strategy implemented in business and in life — is the result of hundreds of everyday decisions about how you spend your time, effort and money. Every minute, every decision you make a statement about what really matters to you. You can say anything about the fact that you have a clear purpose and strategy for life, but ultimately it absolutely means nothing if you don't invest resources which have, in accordance with your strategy. In the end, without effective implementation of any strategy is just good intentions. How can you ensure that you implement the strategy you want to implement? Be careful what consumes what you have, for the resource allocation process. If it does not support your chosen strategy, you risk to face serious problem. You can consider yourself a generous and compassionate person, but how often do you really give your time or money to a cause or organization that you care about? If the most important thing for you is family, when you think about how they spent their time during the week, whether your loved ones go in the first place? After all, if the decisions that you take about where to invest their blood, sweat and tears are not consistent with the image of the person who you aspire to be, then you never will be.

The happiest moments of my life are the few minutes I spent at home with family. Thomas Jefferson

I know that if I didn't do this, I evaluated his day by the fact, if I managed to solve the problem, not what I spent with the family as much time as wanted. I must clearly understand that the long-term benefit from investing resources in this area of life will be much greater. Job can bring you satisfaction achieved — but it pales in comparison to the infinite happiness that you can give relationships with family and close friends.

The only thing I can promise is that you will not be able to understand the situation, if you don't try to do it again and again.

The impression that everything in the house is going well, you may lull your vigilance and make you believe in the opportunity to push investment in the relationship on the back burner. It would be a huge mistake. By the time when this area of life there are serious problems, to fix something, usually too late. This means — as paradoxical as it may sound, what's more important to invest in the creation of strong families and close friendship at a time when it seems that there is no need.

93% of all companies that ultimately succeed have been forced to abandon their original strategy — because the original plan was not viable. In other words, successful companies achieve success not because from the very beginning have the right strategy, and due to the fact that after the failure of the initial strategy they have got money, which allow them to make a turn and try a new approach. Most of those who fail, on the contrary, spend all your money on the implementation of the initial strategy — which, as a rule, erroneous. Theory ≪good and bad≫ money, in fact, describes the work BHAGA in the form of a simple statement. When in the initial stages of creating a new company does not yet exist a clear winning strategy, ≪good≫ money Poluchenie from investors should be "patient" in relation to growth, but "impatient" when it comes to profits. This requires that the new company has defined a successful strategy as quickly as possible and with minimal investment so that entrepreneurs have not spent a large amount of money on the wrong strategy. Given that 93% of companies that have been successful have been forced to change their initial strategy, any capital that requires a young company in the shortest possible time has become very large, almost always gets it in the gap. Big company ≪burns≫ money much faster, and changing it is much more difficult than the small one.

After defining a viable strategy investors need to change the object of their aspirations — they should become impatient for growth of the company and ≪patient" in matters of profit. After a cost-effective and successful way forward found, success depends on the expansion of the model.

too Late to plant saplings when you need shade

In the book ≪Points of failure≫ (Stall Points). In the first stage, the profitability of the core business is so high that the original plan seems inappropriate to the investor. However, it needs to invest in a new wave of growth even when the original business is strong enough and grows to a new project it was time to establish an effective strategy. Despite this, the owner of capital defers these investments, as at the moment they seem to him unreasonable, given the strength of the core business and its insatiable need for additional investment. The issues of tomorrow are solved tomorrow. In the next stage, comes the very next day. The original business is entering a stage of maturity and ceases to grow. The owner of capital suddenly realizes that a few years ago he could have put that money in the next growing business, to the time deceleration of growth in the main he was ready to replace the new engine, providing growth and income. And this engine is not.

The third stage is related to the fact that the owner of the capital, said that any business in which he invests, have become very large, though very quickly. To the annual rate of growth of the company, which generates revenue of $40 million, was 25%, next year you will have to find $10 million in new business. But if the company turns into a $ 40 billion business and wants next year to grow by 25%, you will need to find 10 billion. In this case, the stakes and pressure are enormous. To expedite the process, shareholders poured large sums of money in these initiatives. Often, however, this huge capital gives entrepreneurs ≪fuel≫ enable them actively and without looking to implement a flawed strategy. When the new company at full speed off the cliff, analysts compose for each of them a special story about the reasons for their collapse.

The alternative to this approach — focusing on the opposite of the position: to invest in the company to see how fast she is growing, and to think about how it will generate income in the future. It was Motorola in the history of the Iridium system. History is littered with failed companies that tried to go this way — and almost always this way proved to be ineffective.

In our life we can easily choose a ≪default≫ approach that focuses on the use of ≪bad≫ money. Many of us get pleasure from hard work, from work, in the sense that we believe and we love. We like to prove we are capable of much under pressure. Our projects, clients and colleagues — everything is a challenge for us. We put in all the work of power and soul. But it only strengthens us in the idea that work requires our full attention — and give it to her completely. Resting away from people, we call you at work. Some people just don't go on vacation — too much we need to do. Work becomes our identity. We are carrying around smartphones, constantly checking for any news — as if we might miss something important if we don't all the time connected. We believe that the closest people to us have to accept the fact that we have too busy schedule and we can't spend more time with them. In the end, they, too, want us to succeed, right? We forget to respond to messages coming via e-mail, or phone calls from friends and relatives; neglected birthdays and other celebrations that were important to us. Unfortunately, we should expect exactly the same consequences faced by companies that do not invest in their future. Despite the fact that most of us have been a deliberate strategy of creating deep and filled with love relationships with family and friends, in fact we invest in the life that nobody in their right mind not seek: to have a superficial relationship with many people and have no real friends; divorced, sometimes repeatedly; to have children who are moving away from us, even while living with us under one roof, or bring a foster father or mother, sometimes at a distance of thousands of miles away.

One of the most common variants of this error by young, budding professionals, is associated with the belief that investments in life can be streamlined. For example, they may argue as follows: ≪In the early years, when children are small and parenting isn't so important, I can invest in my career. When children grow up and begin to the things that interest adults, I will be able to slow down his career. That's when I focus too much on the family site. And you know what? By the time the game has to be completed. To invest in their children should start much earlier, providing them the tools they need to overcome the difficulties of life, and even before you can.

Simply put, the more paths between synapses arises in the human brain, the more effective the connection between them are formed. It makes appearing in the future model of thinking is more simple and faster. And this is very important. A child who for the first three Godai heard 48 million words, will not only have in your brain is 3.7 times more than well-established relationships than a child who heard only 13 million words. The impact on brain cells, has an exponential character.t Every cell in our brain can be linked with hundreds of other cells by tens of thousands of synapses. This means that a child with whom you communicate more than usual, has an almost immeasurable advantage from the point of view of cognitive abilities. Moreover, studies Riels and HART suggest that ancient >

However, in case of successful start of your career you will be tempted to do so: to suppose that you can postpone investing in personal relationships. No, you can't. The only way to make these relationships have borne fruit in your life is to make a contribution well before you need them.

IKEA chose a completely different approach. Instead of having to rely on the target audience, it has formed its structure around the work that customers periodically need to be done. What kind of job is it? In the process of research in the field of innovation carried out by me during the last two decades, my colleagues and I created the theory describing this approach to marketing and product development, which he called ≪the Work that needs to be done≫. The idea underlying this theory is that the reason why we buy a product or service, is that we actually ≪hire≫ products that they do for us a different job.

What I mean? We don't go through life conforming to a certain demographic segments: nobody buys a product because he is a white male aged 18 to 35 years with higher education. These characteristics can be correlated with the decision to purchase a particular item, but are not the basis for any purchase. Instead, we periodically find that in our life there is some work we need to do, and then we are looking for a way to do it. If the company has developed a product or service so they did the job well, we buy or ≪hire≫ them to attain our goals. However, if the goods, are well able to do the job does not exist, we usually use what we already have, or solve the problem in a roundabout way. The mechanism that propels us to buy a product, it is possible to Express the following phrase: ≪I Have a job that needs to be done, and somebody/something must/ has to help me with this site.

What happens? First of all, we need to understand to perform any works that occur in the lives of students, ≪hired≫ school. During the research we came to the conclusion that learning as such is not the work trying to make our children. The two major works that need to be done to a child is to feel successful and to have friends — and every day. Of course, they are unable to hire≫ school to complete these works. Some succeed and find friends in the class, school band, math and girls club or basketball team. However, in order to feel like a successful person and to have friends, they can also leave school and join a gang or buy a car and worn on the streets. If you look at this problem from the point of view of our theory, it is clear that schools often perform these two works are not very well — on the contrary, schools are excellent for children to feel like losers. Before the study we assumed that those who succeed in school are well motivated. However, it turned out that all students in one motivation — to feel successful. The problem is that in school it is possible units. Moreover, we found that as fast food restaurant, which had been improving the milkshake, excluding those tasks which it tried to solve the buyers, our schools were engaged in self-improvement, focusing on parameters that have nothing to do with work trying to make disciples. It is impossible to motivate children to work hard in class, just convincing them that they should do it. You need to offer the children in the school are feelings and experiences that will help them to do their work — to feel successful and to share that feeling with friends.

At the schools that make up the curriculum so that the students the feeling of success arose every day, children leave school much less, and the number of absences approaches zero. When the curriculum is formed around the objective of achieving success, students are willing to learn even complex material — in fact, by doing this, they are doing their job.

For some work "hire" you?

If in his professional and personal life you will always think about what kind of work you hire, then you will find a Grand reward.

When the father due to serious illness is no longer able to work, I offered to take his place. I was a student at Oxford, drunk on life and study in this amazing place. And now I'm home again and fill Department store shelves with goods for the Christmas holidays. You might think that, looking back, I should be very unhappy that it happened. Nevertheless, I think these months are the happiest time that I spent with my father and my family. When I'm trying to find an explanation, I realize that this is due to the fact that for them I ≪postponed≫ whole life.

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